Mahamudra, or “great seal,” is a term used in Vajrayana Buddhism to refer to the mark, or nature, of all experience: emptiness. Mahamudra practice is most commonly associated with the Kagyü tradition of Tibet. What follows is taken from Ken McLeod’s “The Way of Freedom,” a Tricycle Online Retreat, available at

For instance, consider space: what depends on what?
—Tilopa, Pith Instructions on Mahamudra (trans. Ken McLeod)

“Space” is a metaphor for mahamudra. We say “mahamudra,” but we could also say nature of mind, nature of experience, ultimate reality, perfection of wisdom, original purity, totality of experience — there are a lot of names here. You can easily come up with at least twenty in just the Tibetan tradition.
What all of these names are pointing to is a way of experiencing the world, experiencing our lives, experiencing ourselves, that is free of struggle. It can be called freedom, or nirvana, and a lot of other things. Over and over again, people make it into a thing, reality, ultimate truth, whatever, but in the end, it is just a way of experiencing life. Ironically, even though so much has been written about this way of experiencing life, we have no way of knowing whether it’s the same experience for everybody. The important point is that each of us has the possibility of finding a way to experience our lives free of struggle. And one of the common features of all these different ways is a sense of extraordinary openness and groundlessness, which in Buddhism is often referred to as emptiness.

People who find this experience of freedom, or, more accurately, find their own way of experiencing freedom, almost always talk about this emptiness aspect.

I mention this explicitly because the term mahamudra points to this emptiness. Mahamudra is composed of two Sanskrit words, maha and mudra. Maha is easy to translate: it means “great,” or “big.” Mudra has a lot of different meanings: sign, symbol, gesture, seal, and so on. In this context, it is usually taken to mean “seal,” like the seal that you would use with sealing wax, a personal seal that marks what belongs to you.Mahamudra, then, means “great seal,” great because it is a seal that marks all of experience.

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