I think the Buddha knew a thing or two about human nature. In particular I think he was wary of the mischief that can come from uneven relationships, in which one person has considerably more power than another, such as in the relationship between a teacher and student. One of the more significant things he did before passing away was appoint no successor, saying “What I have taught and explained to you as the teaching (dhamma) and the practice (vinaya) will, at my passing, be your teacher” (Digha Nikaya 16.6).

This is only one version of the story, of course, and many Buddhist traditions are built around the existence of just such a relationship at the heart of the teaching and practice. Maybe that has not been a problem for many centuries, but there certainly have been a lot of cases in the modern world where the student-teacher relationship has involved a great deal of harm and abuse. Even if these are just a few (or a few barrels of) bad apples, we can’t help but appreciate the prudence of the system Gotama himself left in place when he departed.

The Buddha is everyone’s primary teacher, having worked things out for himself and having had the compassion to teach others, even though the task is wearisome and few are really willing to swim against the stream. But the historical Buddha was a conditioned being, and when his presence was at last fully extinguished between two sal trees in Kusinara, he referred us all to the teachings he left behind.

These were extensive, detailed, well organized, and accessible. He had spent 45 years expounding and reiterating a consistent curriculum, which countless people had memorized and continued to rehearse together every fortnight. It was like leaving everyone with an operating manual, entrusting them to look up what was needed and troubleshoot as necessary. This does not mean relying only on “book learning,” though a detailed study of the original texts remains our most direct way of accessing the early teachings. Since human contact remains 
an important vehicle for transmitting and interpreting the teachings, the role of teacher was also invested in the third of the three gems, the fourfold sangha of monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen.

Our teachers are a vast community of kalyanamittas, or “beneficial friends,” some of whom wear robes while others dress conventionally. Everyone you meet who has a sincere interest in Buddhist teachings and practices can be your teacher, and you are a teacher of others, whether you choose to be or not. In the plan that the Buddha left behind for his movement, everyone is on the path together. Some are a few steps ahead, some are a few steps behind. Each person has an opportunity to learn from those who are farther along, and also has a responsibility to teach those who are less knowledgeable or less experienced. All members of the community are learning from each other, and all are teaching one another.

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